What is Collusion? Definition
Collusion is defined as an illegal agreement between two or more people to restrain trade, fix prices, or limit supply. In other words, it’s an agreement to cheat customers, employees, or shareholders by working together instead of competing against each other. Collusion is often found in industries where there are only a few companies that offer the same product or service. For example, in the diamond industry, De Beers has been accused of collusion numerous times. While collusion is illegal in many countries, it still happens. In this blog post, we will explore some of the ways that companies engage in collusion and how it affects consumers and businesses.
What is collusion?
Collusion is an agreement between two or more people to commit a fraudulent or illegal act. Collusion can also be used to describe secret or illicit cooperation between companies or individuals in order to gain an unfair advantage over competitors.
The Different Types of Collusion
There are three different types of collusion: horizontal, vertical, and bilateral.
Horizontal collusion is when two or more companies in the same industry agree to fix prices, divide markets, or limit production. For example, if Company A and Company B both produce widgets, they may agree to sell them for the same price. This type of collusion is also called price-fixing.
Vertical collusion happens when companies at different levels of the supply chain (e.g., manufacturers and retailers) agree to fix prices or divide markets. For example, a manufacturer may agree to sell its widgets only to Retailer A, while Retailer A agrees not to sell any widgets from other manufacturers.
Bilateral collusion is when a company agrees not to compete with another company in a certain market. For example, Company A may agree not to sell widgets in Country X, while Company B agrees not to sell widgets in Country Y.
The Pros and Cons of Collusion
The term “collusion” is often used in politics to describe illegal or unethical agreements between individuals or groups. In business, collusion occurs when two or more companies agree to fix prices, divide markets, or otherwise limit competition. Collusion is illegal under antitrust laws in most countries.
There are both pros and cons to collusion. On the plus side, businesses can increase profits by agreeing to charge higher prices or to reduce output. This can also lead to higher wages for workers as companies compete for a limited supply of labor. Additionally, businesses may be able to cooperate on research and development projects, leading to innovations that would not have occurred otherwise.
On the downside, collusion can hurt consumers by leading to higher prices and reduced choices. Moreover, it can stifle innovation as companies no longer have an incentive to improve their products or find new ways of doing business. Finally, collusion can lead to criminal charges for those involved.
How to Detect Collusion
There are a few key ways to detect collusion:
1. Look for patterns in pricing or output. If there is a sudden and unexplained increase or decrease in prices, or if output suddenly decreases without a corresponding decrease in demand, this could be an indication of collusion.
2. Look for changes in market share. If one firm begins to gain an unusually large share of the market, while other firms’ shares remain static or decline, this could be an indication of collusion.
3. Look for evidence of secretive communications between firms. If employees from different firms are caught communicating with each other in a way that suggests they are coordinating their actions, this could be an indication of collusion.
Alternatives to Collusion
There are many alternatives to collusion. Some of these alternatives include:
In short, collusion is an agreement between two or more people to commit a crime or to defraud the public. This could be anything from price-fixing to bribery. While it may seem like a victimless crime, collusion often leads to higher prices for consumers and less competition in the marketplace. If you suspect that someone is colluding with another person or business, you should report it to the authorities.